Over 500 fauna and flora species and ecological communities are listed as threatened under Victorian legislation (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988).

Many more are included in DELWP's Threatened Species Advisory Lists (over 250 animals and 1800 plants). Reasons for their decline include the loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitat due to clearing for agriculture, urban development, timber harvesting, weed invasion, inappropriate fire regimes, grazing, climate change, and alteration to flows and temperature regimes in rivers. Competition for resources and predation by introduced species (e.g. fox, cats, rabbits, trout) have also had a significant effect on many species. Effective management of these processes is required to ensure the survival of threatened species and communities into the future. This management needs to be based on information obtained via ecological research.

The threatened Hooded Scaly-foot